August 1, 2016
April 16, 2016
A first look at the FBI’s animal cruelty statistics will be available next year, but it will take three to five years for the data to begin showing helpful patterns.
It was more than 10 years ago that Mary Lou Randour realized she couldn't answer what should have been a simple question: Was cruelty against animals on the rise or in decline? After a years-long lobbying effort, in 2014, the FBI agreed. And this year will be the first time it collects data on animal crimes the way it does for other serious crimes like homicide.
Read More → http://www.pjstar.com/article/ZZ/20160415/LIFESTYLE/160419853
FBI Rolling Out A Plan To Track Worst Animal Cruelty Cases
FBI’s expansive criminal database. On January 1, the Bureau’s National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) began collecting detailed data from participating law enforcement agencies on acts of animal cruelty, including gross neglect, torture, organized abuse, and abuse. Before this year, crimes that involved animals were lumped into an “All Other Offenses” category in the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program’s annual Crime in the United States report, a survey of crime data provided by about 18,000 city, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies.By adding animal cruelty offenses to NIBRS, law enforcement agencies and the advocacy groups that pushed for the inclusion in the FBI database are hoping the results will reveal a more complete picture of the nature of cruelty to animals. “Some studies say that cruelty to animals is a precursor to larger crime,” said Nelson Ferry, who works in the Bureau’s Criminal Statistics Management Unit, which manages NIBRS. “That’s one of the items that we’re looking at.”The National Sheriffs’ Association was a leading advocate for adding animal cruelty as a data set in the Bureau’s collection of crime statistics. The association for years has cited studies linking animal abuse and other types of crimes—most famously, murders committed by serial killers like Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer, and the “Son of Sam” killer David Berkowitz. The organization also points out the overlap animal abuse has with domestic violence and child abuse.“If somebody is harming an animal, there is a good chance they also are hurting a human,” said John Thompson, deputy executive director of the National Sheriffs’ Association. “If we see patterns of animal abuse, the odds are that something else is going on.” A first look at NIBRS animal cruelty statistics will be available next year, but it will take at least three to five years for the data to begin showing helpful patterns. Groups that advocated for the new animal cruelty data hope that by adding it to NIBRS—rather than the summary-based statistics agencies provide the Bureau each year—they will get a much richer data set from which to mine. That’s because NIBRS requires participating agencies to not only report crimes but also all the circumstances of a crime. Additionally, the Bureau plans to phase out summary-based UCR statistics—which have been collected roughly the same way since 1930—in favor of NIBRS by 2021.“With summary data, all I can tell you is a crime occurred,” said Amy Blasher, who is leading the broader transition to NIBRS at the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services Division, keeper of the Bureau’s various crime data stores. “With the incident-based, it’s more granular. It tells the story.”The move to collect more granular data requires agencies to adjust how they track and disseminate crime statistics. Only about 31 percent of the country is represented in NIBRS today—a fraction of the overall UCR participants; however, Blasher anticipates the figure to grow larger as law enforcement agencies opt in, including police departments in Washington, D.C. and Chicago over the next two years. The FBI is aggressively pushing for the transition to NIBRS. In a speech last March in Atlanta, FBI Director James Comey said it was his personal mission to get better data “that we can all use to have informed conversations about the most important issues we face.”Those who lobbied for better animal abuse data would agree. “With this information, law enforcement and victim services would be able to better target their intervention efforts with respect to both animal cruelty and those crimes for which animal cruelty serves as a marker,” said Dr. Mary Lou Randour of the Animal Welfare Institute, which worked closely with the National Sheriffs’ Association to advance their cause. “Identifying and analyzing animal cruelty crimes would provide an important tool for law enforcement.” The National Sheriffs’ Association’s John Thompson urged people to shed the mindset that animal cruelty is a crime only against animals. “It’s a crime against society,” he said, urging all law enforcement agencies to participate in NIBRS. “By paying attention to [these crimes], we are benefiting all of society.”
✴︎Section 2— Clarification to Policy and Procedures
National UCR Program to begin collecting data on animal
Beginning January 1, 2016, the national UCR Program will add the offense of Animal Cruelty to the NIBRS as a Group A offense and as a Crime Against Society.
Data Element 12 (Type Criminal Activity/Gang Information) will expand to include four data values about the type of abuse. The four types of abuse will be:
Simple/Gross Neglect (failure to provide food, water, shelter, veterinary care, or intentionally or knowingly withholding food or water)
Intentional Abuse and Torture
Organized Abuse (dog fighting and cock fighting)
Animal Sexual Abuse (bestiality).
The definition of Animal Cruelty will be:
Intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly taking an action that mistreats or kills any animal without just cause, such as torturing, tormenting, mutilation, maiming, poisoning, or abandonment. Included are instances of duty to provide care, e.g., shelter, food, water, care if sick or injured; transporting or confining an animal in a manner likely to cause injury or death; causing an animal to fight with another; inflicting excessive or repeated unnecessary pain or suffering, e.g., uses objects to beat or torture an animal. This definition does not include proper maintenance of animals for show or sport; use of animals for food, lawful hunting, fishing, or trapping.
The national UCR Program staff will implement these changes to the NIBRS during the 2015 calendar year and will begin to collect these data on January 1, 2016.
Agencies with questions should contact Ms. Drema Fouch in the CSMU’s Programs Development Group. You can reach her by telephone at (304) 625-2982 or by e-mail at <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Quality Assurance Review guidelines for policy changes and data enhancements
In the past several years, both the Summary Reporting System (SRS) and the NIBRS have undergone several changes:
Expanded location and property data values in the NIBRS
Revised definition of rape in the SRS
Began the collection of cargo theft data and human trafficking data in both the SRS and the NIBRS.
Tennessee launches nation's first statewide animal abuse registry
LAURA MOSS January 5, 2016
♠︎An Ocklawaha woman was charged with 8 counts of felony Animal Cruelty-Cause Cruel Death Pain
and Suffering following an inspection of her property by Marion County Animal Services.
♠︎Woman Sentenced To Animal Abuse Counseling,
Community Labor For Taping Cat’s Pawshttp://losangeles.cbslocal.com/2016/03/03/woman-sentenced-to-animal-abuse-counseling-community-labor-for-taping-cats-paws/
♠︎Newport Beach Birds Found Shot With Blow Darts
February 11, 2016
♠︎Dog Nearly Decapitated After Her Neck Is Tied With Shoelace
June 5, 2015
Read Moer http://losangeles.cbslocal.com/2015/06/05/german-shepherd-mix-with-severe-neck-wound-rescued-in-unincorporated-perris/
♠︎Some Jerk In Michigan Shot This Cat With An Arrow10/07/2015 Read More http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/cat-shot-with-arrow_us_5614d536e4b0fad1591a0a4a
♠︎Citrus mother, daughter arrested in animal cruelty
investigation spanning 4 states
♠︎Natural Bridge Zoo accused of animal abuseRead More http://www.newsleader.com/story/news/local/2015/01/22/natural-bridge-zoo-accused-animal-abuse/22169421/
♠︎New River Man Arrested For Animal Abuse, 13 Dogs Seized
♠︎Police Search For Person Who Taped Dog’s Muzzle ShutA stray dog was found with electrical tape wrapped so tightly around her muzzle that it may cause permanent damage. Read More http://petcha.com/pet_care/police-search-for-person-who-taped-dogs-muzzle-shut/
♠︎Dog found dead with note worst case of animal abuse in Pembroke Pines, police say
Several offer reward money for info leading to dog's gloating killer
♠︎Woman who tossed puppy from car found guilty of animal abuse September 15, 2015
♠︎James Island man charged with animal cruelty after bull mastiff is found underweight, malnourished Mar 25 2015
♠︎Woman jailed after dogs starved in 'one of worst' cruelty cases seen by court January 26, 2015
♠︎Man who starved dog so badly she resembled a 'skeleton' escapes prisonMay 30, 2014http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/479250/Man-who-starved-dog-so-badly-she-resembled-a-skeleton-escapes-prison
♠︎Midwest City man faces animal cruelty charges after authorities find 2 dogs in apartment. Jul 16 2014
♠︎60-plus animals seized, woman arrested for animal cruelty in Dallas
♠︎DA: Oyster Bay Woman Sentenced in Animal Abuse CaseMay 9, 2014
♠︎Heartless yobs colour in two kittens with blue and green permanent markerhttp://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/7107341/Sick-yobs-colour-in-two-kittens-with-blue-and-green-permanent-marker.html?CMP=spklr-_-Editorial-_-TWITTER-_-TheSunNewspaper-_-20160427-_-News-_-447804438-_-Imageandlink
♠︎Animal killer Kayla Bourque moving into New WestminsterAnimal Abuse a Felony in All 50 StatesOnline:— National Sheriffs' Association:— Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Los Angeles:— Center for Animal Law Studies: law.lclark.edu/centers/animal_law_studies
March 26, 2016
NATURE | Crash: A Tale of Two Species | Blue Blood | PBS
Where (and when) do horseshoe crabs evolve?
The evolution of the horseshoe crab extends back far before the dawn of human civilization, before the dinosaurs, before flowering plants... back to the era in our planet's history when visible life first appeared.
Our Evolution section traces the development of the horseshoe crab from the Paleozoic Era and provides an overview of the changes to our planet's geology, climate, flora and fauna from 540 million years ago to the present. Toward the end of the Cenozoic Era, beginning with the Holocene (11,000 BC to the Present), we look specifically at the evolution and development of the Delaware Bay.
If you've ever had a flu shot, know someone with a pace maker or joint replacement, or have given your pet a rabies vaccination, you owe a debt of gratitude to the horseshoe crab. Vaccines, injectable drugs, intravenous solutions, and implantable medical devices, both for humans and animals, are quality checked for safety using a test that comes from the blood of horseshoe crabs.
How does horseshoe crab blood protect the public health?
Humans can become sick if exposed to bacterial endotoxin. It is especially dangerous if endotoxin enters our blood stream directly, such as from an injectable drug. Given this, drugs and medical devices that come in contact with our blood stream are tested to help assure they do not contain harmful levels of endotoxin.
Like other animals, the horseshoe crab has an immune and blood coagulation system that protects it against infection. Inside the horseshoe crab’s blood cell (called the amebocyte) are the protiens of its blood clotting system. These proteins are released in response to the presence of unwanted organisms like Gram negative bacteria and cause its blood to clot around the injury and bacteria, protecting the animal from further harm.
Endotoxin Testing: LAL and TAL
Research on horseshoe crabs showed that their blood is very sensitive to endotoxin, which is a component of Gram-negative bacteria like E. coli. In the 1960s (see timeline), Frederik Bang and Jack Levin developed a test from Limulus polyphemus blood that detected the presence of endotoxin. This test, based on the fact that the blood of the horseshoe crab gels or clots when it comes in contact with endotoxin, was called the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)test and was commercialized in the United States in the 1970s. In Asia, there is a similar test called TAL which takes its name from an Asian species of crab, Tachypleus tridentatus.
The LAL and TAL test methods have advanced since the early days, all with the purpose of helping to make injectable drugs, vaccines, and medical devices safer for humans and animals. In addition to the use of their blood for an endotoxin test such as the gel clot test, the horseshoe crab's DNA has been used to develop a recombinant test method for endotoxin. Even as alternatives are being developed that will retire or reduce the use of horseshoe crab blood, we will always be indebted to the horseshoe crab's contribution to our health.
In addition, a version of the LAL test has been clear by FDA as a test to aid in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. This test takes advantage of the fact that the horseshoe crabs blood clotting system responds to (1→3)-β-glucans as well as to endotoxins. (1→3)-β-glucans are a cell wall component of a wide range of fungi. A glucan test can indicate the presence (or absence) of a fungal infection within a couple of hours of drawing a patient’s blood sample so that appropriate treatment can begin promptly. Conventional methods of diagnosis can take days of even weeks to give a definitive result.